TYPES OF CYBER ATTACK
reliability, and reduced costs of interconnected sub-networks.
Unfortunately, security innovation was left behind: components
were insecure, protocols were mainly clear text, and
authentication of users and applications was weak. The design
goals were more concerned with reliability and cost reduction
than with security. This might be described as ‘
DELIBERATE HACKING AND INTRUSION
A large, expert and active hacking community directs its efforts
to exposing and exploiting flaws in operating systems and
architectures. Hacks of popular operating systems commonly
used in ICS and corporate workstations (such as Windows or
Linux), or cell phone operating systems (such as Android) are
constantly in the news. But even a proprietary operating system
on a SCADA/ICS controller is at risk, allowing an intruder to enter
via a maintenance laptop.
FAILURE TO MAINTAIN
Corporate policies and regulatory controls may ‘freeze’ an ICS
when it is first commissioned and certified, making patching and
updating vulnerable operating systems all but impossible.
It is difficult to retrofit security onto a design which is
unprotected at so many levels. If you consider all the hardware,
software, network, and physical vulnerabilities of a system (its
‘attack surface’), it becomes clear that only a complete redesign
from the ground up will secure the ICS from known threats. That
is why assistance from experienced security professionals is
critical, to combat the many different types of attack that can be
launched against an ICS.
This article is an excerpt from Critical Infrastructure Security Guide 1.
See the full paper here. See also Critical Infrastructure Guide 2:
How to Design and Implement a Cyber Security Strategy here.
Weak Authentication 5%
Network Scanning/Probing 22%
Removable Media 2%
Brute Force Intrusion 1%
Abuse of Access Authority 4%
Spear Phishing 17%
SQL Injection 2%
Source: ICS CERT Monitor Sep2014 – Feb2015